In Iran over 200 varieties of grapes have been named in different languages, Azarbayjani,
Farsi, Khorasani and Shirazi, but it is obvious that most of these names are related to one
item that has found different names in different locations.

Separating and adapting these names is a very demanding job and takes a long time.
Studying, determining and distinguishing the varieties of fruits have begun in Iran for
years, but unfortunately these studies are not completed yet.

In the short period that the writer was in Rezayieh city, he proceeded to determine and
study the varieties of grapes in west Azarbayjan. So far, nearly 30 kinds of grapes have
been recognized in this zone that apart from a few number of them, the rest is desirable
and appropriate for different usages.

We can divide the grapes into two categories, one of them is raisin grapes that is used to
provide Sabzeh(Green raisins), and the other is the kind that is mostly seeded and used in
making wine and sap.

a. First group or raisin grapes_ In Rezayieh, most of Sabzeh and raisins are made out of the
following 4 items:  
1.  Raisin white grapes_ the singles of this kind is seedless and its colour is yellowish
white. (cream) This kind has an amassed cluster and is cold sensitive. The colour of the
obtained raisin is green or brown according to its preparation method.  
2.  Raisin red grapes_ This kind is seedless as well and the colour of the singles that are
round just like raisin white grapes, is red and only red raisin is provided out of this kind.
From the point of quality, raisin white grapes are one of the best and most desirable
Rezayieh grapes and are famous as "Varzan's Bride". The leaves of this kind are thin and are
used to make Dolma.  
3.  Mayeh mow grapes_ This type of grapes are mostly used to be eaten fresh, the singles
of this kind are seeded, round and white. From the point of Sabzeh and raisins, it is
second class and from the industrial point of view it is used to make syrup of grapes and
4.  Redjin grapes or Morvarid_ Grapes that are seedless and white and are only used to
make rice raisins. Its thin, green and light leaves are appropriate to make Dolma.  

b. Second group or sap and wine grapes_ Varieties of this group's grapes have seeded
singles with thick skins. Shrub's growing up in these varieties is usually fast and the
branches become long. The leaves are thick and are dark green.  
Various kinds in group include:
1. Shahani or Sultani grapes(Sultana)_ The single of this type is dark red and round. The
singles are as big as a hazelnut or a little bit smaller. There is a high amount of grape juice
in this item and its flavour is a little astringent due to the great amount of Tanon. In some
parts like Gilan and less in Tehran, it is used as fresh fruit, but its application case is mostly
in preparing sap and Shahani famous wine. This item is found too much in most of the
parts of Iran specially in Qazvin.  
2.  Sap black grapes_ Its native name is Gharah Shireh in Azarbayjan. Its cold resistivity is
relatively much and its singles have black and thin skin and are seeded. The cluster of sap
black grape is very compressed and amassed and the singles of the grape are full with
great amount of protein, and from the point of grape ripeness it is one of the serotinal
kinds. The twig of sap black grape or Gharah Shireh is generally brown, that recognizing
its shrub in winter that the shrub has no leaves, is really easy. It is used in sap and red
wine making.  
3.  Rezeghi grapes_ The colour of the singles of the grape is dark green and its shape is
oval. This type is seeded, juicy and serotinal.  
4.  Dashghara grapes_ Its round singles are in size of a thick_skinned hazelnut, its colour is
violettish black. The singles of the grape have little juice with astringent flavour.  
5. Hosseini grape_ The single is seeded, long, white, delicate and juicy. Hosseini grape is
appropriate to be used fresh and to make sap and wine.  
6.  Rishbaba grape_ It exists in white and red colours, the single's skin is thick and is used
to make Avang. The single's shape is long. (Avang is the special method of saving grapes
which we will explain it later.)  
7.  Ghezel Ozom grape_ This kind is seeded, the singles are relatively big with a thick
skin. It is not usually used fresh. This type is used in form of Avang in winter. The singles
are egg_shaped and the shrub of this variety has a low amount of fruit.  
8. Gazandai_ The single is round and seeded, the cluster is thin, the colour of the singles is
yellowish white, and with the size of a small greengage. The raisins of this kind are black
and very desirable. The skin of the singles is thick and the fresh grape while eating is very
brittle and has a special frangibility. The leaves of Gazandai grape are coarse and dark
9.  Sahebi grape_ The singles are red and the skin of the fruit is thin. If after the complete
ripeness, it is remained on the shrub, it will be spoiled. The size of the sinlges is medium
with an oval shape.  
10. Askari grape_ The kind of grape that is seedless, juicy and thin_skinned. The singles are
a little long and white. The leaf of Askari grape shrub is coarse and small. Askari and
Sahebi grapes are good to be used fresh.  
11. Khalili grape_ The singles are long in white and red colours, Khalili grape is more early
ripening from the whole varieties of grapes in Rezayieh. It is eaten fresh.  
12. Candameh grape_ The grape's skin is dark red but the grape juice is white. This type
of grape is early ripening as well and ripens after Khalili grape. Kandomeh grape is seeded
and if not picked up after ripening, the grape cluster will be spolied on the shrub. It is
used to be eaten fresh and also to make make raisins.  
13. Pishik Gosi grape_ The shrub of this type grows fast and occupies a vast area. Its
leaves are thick in dark green colour. The clusters are small, the singles are seeded, with a
thick skin and low amount of juice. The flavour of this kind is astringent and undesirable.  
14. Tabarzeh grape_ The grape is seeded, the colour of the singles is often yellowish
white, but sometimes red Tabarzeh grape is seen as well. The singles of this type are long
and extremely sweet. The farmers around Rezayieh pour the juice of this kind of grape to
their ears to have a better hearing. The raisin of this type is really desirable and relatively
rare , and from the point of business, the price of Tabarzeh grape is always twice the
price of other grapes.  
15. Dazmari grape_ The single of Dazmari grape is seeded, the colour is yellowish white ,
oval shped and early ripening. The leaves of this type have three lips. The main usage of
it is to be eaten fresh, but in some cases, they produce raisins out of it as well.  
16. Artchin grape_ This kind of grape is not used fresh in summer, but its clusters that are
relatively big, are used in form of Avang in winter. The single of Artchin grape is seeded
and oval. Raisins are produced out of this type as well.  
17. Ketchi Amdjii_ The singles of this kind are in the form of goat breats. It is a grape that
is seeded, with a thick skin, in white and red colours. The clusters are small and thin, it is
used in production of sap, pickle and avang.  
18. Seedless La'li grape_ The grape is seedless, its sinlges are juicy with a red and thin
skin. The shape of the singles is round and as big as a greengage. It is used to make a
special kind of wine and in winter it is used in form of Avang.  
19.  Maleki grape_ The shrub of Maleki Grape is small and weak. The colour of the singles is
light green, its skin is thin, and the singles are round and juicy. The singles are in size of a
hazelnut. It is used to make wine, sap and syrup of grapes.  
20. Malami grape_ The shrub of Malami grape is strong with fast growing, its single is oval
and juicy. The colour of the single skin is dark violet or white. They make sap and wine
out of this seeded grape.  
21.  Ordoubad grape_ The single of this type is seeded and oval_shaped. The colour of the
cube is white and brown spots can be seen on it.  
22.  Garmian grape_ The single of this type is round, seeded and small, its colour is
yellowish white, with a sweet flavour and a thin skin.  
23.  Booghan grape_ Has big singles and is almost in form of Artchin grape singles. The
colour of the cluster is green, the singles are seeded, and the fruit is undesirable.  
24.  Maragheh grape_ The grape's single is seedless, in oval shape and yellowish white
colour. Its flavour is sweet, and it has thin skin and juicy singles. The raisins of this type of
grapes are really desirable.  
25.  Saghal Soulian_ The single of this kind is seedless and juicy with a thin skin. The colour
of the fruit is dark red and its size is lie a big pea single. This type of grape is low_pulped
with a low amount of sugar.  
26.  Shirazi grape_ This kind of grape is seedless, the singles are a little long with colour of
greenish white.
iran raisin golden-sultana-black
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